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How Many Types Of Operating Systems


  Category:  INFO | 26th May 2023 | Author:  CSI TEAM

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There Are Several Types Of operating Systems, Each Designed For Specific Purposes And Platforms.

Here Are Some Commonly Used Types Of Operating Systems:

  1. Windows: Developed By Microsoft, Windows Is One Of The Most Popular Operating Systems For Personal Computers. Different Versions Of Windows, Such As Windows 10, Windows 8, And Windows 7, Provide A Graphical User Interface (GUI) And Support For A Wide Range Of Software Applications.

  2. macOS: Developed By Apple, MacOS Is The Operating System Used On Apple's Mac Computers. It Offers A User-friendly Interface, Integration With Other Apple Devices And Services, And A Broad Range Of Productivity And Creative Applications.

  3. Linux: Linux Is An Open-source Operating System Kernel That Serves As The Foundation For Various Linux Distributions Or "distros." Linux Is Known For Its Stability, Security, And Flexibility. Popular Linux Distributions Include Ubuntu, Fedora, Debian, And CentOS, Catering To Different User Preferences And Needs.

  4. Unix: Unix Is A Family Of Operating Systems With Roots Dating Back To The 1970s. It Emphasizes Multitasking, Multiuser Functionality, And Stability. Unix Has Influenced The Development Of Various Operating Systems, Including Linux And MacOS.

  5. Android: Android Is A Linux-based Operating System Primarily Designed For Mobile Devices Such As Smartphones And Tablets. Developed By Google, Android Is Widely Used Worldwide And Supports A Vast Ecosystem Of Applications Through Google Play Store.

  6. iOS: IOS Is The Operating System Developed By Apple For Its Mobile Devices, Including IPhones, IPads, And IPod Touch. It Offers A Secure And Optimized Environment, Tightly Integrated With Apple's Hardware And Services.

  7. Real-time Operating Systems (RTOS): RTOS Is Designed For Systems That Require Precise Timing And Responsiveness, Often Used In Embedded Systems, Industrial Automation, And Robotics. Examples Include FreeRTOS, QNX, And VxWorks.

These Are Just A Few Examples Of Operating Systems, And There Are Many More Specialized And Niche Operating Systems Used In Specific Domains, Such As Server Environments, Supercomputers, And Specialized Devices.

Single-tasking And Multi-tasking

Single-tasking And Multi-tasking Are Two Different Approaches To Managing Tasks And Processes In An Operating System.

  1. Single-tasking: In A Single-tasking Operating System, Only One Task Or Process Is Executed At A Time. The Operating System Allocates The Entire System Resources To That Specific Task Until It Completes Or Is Interrupted. Once The Task Finishes, The Operating System Can Switch To Another Task. Examples Of Single-tasking Operating Systems Include Early Versions Of MS-DOS (Disk Operating System) And Early Embedded Systems.

  2. Multi-tasking: In A Multi-tasking Operating System, Multiple Tasks Or Processes Are Executed Concurrently. The Operating System Divides The CPU Time And System Resources Among These Tasks, Allowing Them To Run Simultaneously. Each Task Is Allocated A Small Time Slice Or A Priority-based Scheduling Scheme Determines Which Task Gets The CPU Time. Multi-tasking Provides The Illusion Of Parallelism, Allowing Users To Interact With Multiple Applications Or Processes Simultaneously. Most Modern Operating Systems, Including Windows, MacOS, Linux, And Mobile Operating Systems Like Android And IOS, Employ Multi-tasking.

Multi-tasking Can Be Further Categorized Into Two Types:

  • Preemptive Multi-tasking: In Preemptive Multi-tasking, The Operating System Has Control Over Task Scheduling And Can Interrupt Tasks As Needed. The Operating System Can Preempt Or Forcibly Pause A Running Task To Allocate CPU Time To Another Higher-priority Task. This Ensures Fair Utilization Of System Resources And Responsiveness. Preemptive Multi-tasking Is Commonly Used In Modern Operating Systems.

  • Cooperative Multi-tasking: In Cooperative Multi-tasking, Tasks Voluntarily Yield Control To Other Tasks. Each Task Is Responsible For Giving Up The CPU To Allow Other Tasks To Execute. This Approach Requires Tasks To Be Well-behaved And Cooperative To Ensure Fair Resource Sharing. Older Operating Systems, Such As Early Versions Of Windows (prior To Windows 95/98), Used Cooperative Multi-tasking.

Multi-tasking Allows Users To Run Multiple Applications Simultaneously, Switch Between Them Seamlessly, And Achieve Higher Productivity. It Enables Background Tasks, Such As System Maintenance, Updates, And Device Synchronization, To Run Alongside User Applications.

Single-user And Multi-user

Single-user And Multi-user Are Two Different Modes Of Operation In An Operating System That Determine How Many Users Can Interact With The System Simultaneously.

  1. Single-user: In A Single-user Operating System, Only One User Can Interact With The System At A Time. The Operating System Is Designed To Support A Single User Environment, Typically Found On Personal Computers Or Devices Used By A Single Individual. The User Has Complete Control Over The System And Can Run Applications, Modify System Settings, And Access Files Specific To That User. Examples Of Single-user Operating Systems Include Early Versions Of MS-DOS And Windows 3.1.

  2. Multi-user: In A Multi-user Operating System, Multiple Users Can Simultaneously Interact With The System, Each With Their Own User Accounts And Individual Sessions. The Operating System Manages Resources, Ensures User Isolation And Security, And Provides Mechanisms For Users To Access And Share System Resources. Multiple Users Can Log In, Run Applications, And Perform Tasks Concurrently. Multi-user Operating Systems Are Commonly Found In Server Environments, Mainframes, And Multi-user Computing Systems. Examples Include Linux, Unix, Windows Server Editions, And IBM Z/OS.

Multi-user Operating Systems Typically Have Features Such As User Authentication, Access Control, And Session Management To Maintain User Privacy And Prevent Unauthorized Access To Each User's Files And Data. User Sessions Are Independent Of One Another, And System Resources, Such As CPU Time, Memory, And Storage, Are Shared Among The Users Based On Resource Allocation Policies.

Multi-user Operating Systems Enable Collaboration And Resource Sharing Among Users, Making Them Suitable For Environments Where Multiple Users Need Simultaneous Access To Applications, Files, And Services. They Also Facilitate Centralized Management And Administration Of User Accounts And System Resources.

It's Worth Noting That Some Operating Systems Can Support Both Single-user And Multi-user Modes, Allowing Users To Switch Between Them Depending On The System Configuration And Requirements.

Types Of Operating System, Single-user And Multi-u